Búsqueda de fenotipos basados en el rendimiento cognitivo en el Trastorno del espectro autista
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fenotipos
trastorno del espectro autista
espectro

Cómo citar

Domínguez Martín, C., Gallardo Borge, L., & Molina Rodríguez, V. (2021). Búsqueda de fenotipos basados en el rendimiento cognitivo en el Trastorno del espectro autista. Revista De Psiquiatría Infanto-Juvenil, 38(3), 24-32. https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v38n3a4

Resumen

Introducción: El Trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) presenta una gran variabilidad clínica. Para conocer mejor esta variabilidad clínica se ha estudiado a nivel genético, neuroimagen y neuropsicológico, sin obtener resultados concluyentes que expliquen esta variabilidad. El estudio de diferentes fenotipos en base a medidas conductuales y cognitivas pretende estudiar las diferencias observadas en la presentación clínica entre los menores con trastorno del espectro autista. Objetivo: Determinar si existen fenotipos basados en el estudio de variables cognitivas y conductuales en pacientes diagnosticados de TEA. Material y métodos: Se evaluaron 56 pacientes menores con diagnóstico de TEA mediante diferentes pruebas psicométricas. Se estudiaron la flexibilidad cognitiva, estereotipias motoras, estereotipias sensoriales, intereses circunscritos, cambios mínimos en rutinas, juego imaginativo y creatividad. Mediante el análisis factorial de estas 7 variables se obtuvieron 3 factores para evaluar los subgrupos del estudio. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias significativas en las distribuciones de diagnóstico clínico, según criterios DSM-IV-TR, en las diferentes variables. El análisis factorial de las 7 variables y de los 3 factores observaron diferencias en uno de los factores, el F3 que incluía la variable de creatividad y de flexibilidad cognitiva, en el subgrupo de autismo. Conclusiones: No se han encontrado fenotipos en el estudio de variables cognitivas y conductuales de la muestra. Las características estudiadas se ajustan a un modelo dimensional para el TEA. El subgrupo de autismo presenta menor flexibilidad cognitiva y creatividad que los otros subgrupos.

https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v38n3a4
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Referencias

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