La importancia del apoyo social en la intervención con víctimas de abuso sexual infantil: una revisión teórica
Palabras clave:Abuso sexual, apoyo social, intervención terapéutica, resiliencia, psicológica
Se presenta una revisión teórica de la importancia de la evaluación e implementación del apoyo social en la intervención con víctimas de abuso sexual, al ser éste un componente fundamental de la resiliencia que presentan ciertos individuos ante esta experiencia y dada su importancia en el pronóstico del tratamiento. La mayoría de estudios llevados a cabo en esta área constatan la elevada frecuencia de reacciones negativas y culpabilizadoras por parte del entorno de la víctima ante la revelación del abuso aumentando el riesgo de sintomatología psicológica, así como dificultando la efectividad de los tratamientos aplicados. Es necesario incluir, como parte integral del proceso de intervención, aquellas fuentes de apoyo que la víctima valora como relevantes, realizar estudios empíricos nacionales que permitan observar el efecto de esta variable en víctimas de abuso sexual infantil de nuestro país y desarrollar instrumentos para evaluarla, permitiendo comparaciones con otros contextos y observando la existencia de posibles diferencias culturales.
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