Psicopatología de los adolescentes residentes en hogares funcionales que precisan hospitalización psiquiátrica
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Palabras clave

Hogar Funcional
adolescentes
psicopatología
trastorno disocial
consumo de sustancias

Cómo citar

Fernández Rivas, A., Gatón Moreno, A., Vivanco González, E., Sesma Pardo, E., Kerexeta Lizeaga, I., Díaz Cosgaya, A., & González Torres, M. (2015). Psicopatología de los adolescentes residentes en hogares funcionales que precisan hospitalización psiquiátrica. Revista De Psiquiatría Infanto-Juvenil, 32(4), 202-208. Recuperado a partir de http://aepnya.eu/index.php/revistaaepnya/article/view/85

Resumen

Introducción: Los adolescentes residentes en Hogares Funcionales presentan más riesgo de presentar Trastorno disocial y consumo de tóxicos.
Método: Se estudió una muestra compuesta por todos los 431 adolescentes (12 y 17 años, 50,1% varones) que requirieron hospitalización en la Unidad de Psiquiatría Infanto-Juvenil del Hospital Universitario Basurto a lo largo de 68 meses consecutivos. Analizamos las características diferenciadoras respecto al motivo de ingreso, diagnóstico psiquiátrico, consumo de tabaco, alcohol y drogas, antecedentes psiquiátricos personales y familiares entre aquellos adolescentes ingresados que residían en hogares funcionales y los que residían con sus familias.
Resultados: El motivo más frecuente de ingreso para el total de la muestra fue alteración de la conducta (60,7% para los menores residentes en hogares funcionales y 33% para los residentes con familia de origen), seguidos de descompensación psicótica (24,7%) para residentes en hogares funcionales, y trastorno de la conducta alimentaria (16,4%) para los residentes con sus familias (p<0,001). El diagnóstico psiquiátrico al alta más frecuente en ambos grupos fue trastorno psicótico (39,3% y 28,9%), siendo el trastorno disocial (37,1%) más prevalente en los adolescentes de hogares funcionales (p<0,001). Los residentes en hogares funcionales consumían más tabaco (59,6%) (p<0,001), cannabis (50,6%) (p<0,001), anfetaminas (15,7%) (p<0,01) y cocaína (14,6 %) (p<0,05), y tenían más antecedentes de tratamiento psiquiátrico previo (p<0,05) y antecedentes familiares psiquiátricos (p<0,001).
Conclusiones: Los adolescentes que residen en hogares funcionales y precisan una hospitalización psiquiátrica representan un grupo de población en mayor riesgo de presentar trastorno disocial, consumir tabaco, cannabis y otras sustancias y poseer más antecedentes familiares psiquiátricos.

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Referencias

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