Salud mental infanto-juvenil y pandemia de Covid-19 en España: cuestiones y retos
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Palabras clave

Coronavirus
psiquiatría infanto-juvenil
salud mental
pandemia
trastorno por estrés postraumático

Cómo citar

Paricio del Castillo, R., & Pando Velasco, M. F. (2020). Salud mental infanto-juvenil y pandemia de Covid-19 en España: cuestiones y retos. Revista De Psiquiatría Infanto-Juvenil, 37(2), 30-44. https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v37n2a4

Resumen

Introducción: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha supuesto medidas de salud pública tales como el cierre de los centros educativos y el confinamiento domiciliario de la población.
Métodos: Revisión bibliográfica de los efectos psicológicos en la población infanto-juvenil de las pandemias y del confinamiento, su impacto en el desarrollo, los factores de riesgo asociados y las posibles estrategias de prevención.
Resultados: Las pandemias infecciosas se asocian a un aumento de la sintomatología ansiosa, depresiva y postraumática en la población infanto-juvenil. El confinamiento tiene repercusiones negativas sobre su salud mental y física. El desarrollo de los menores se puede ver afectado por el cierre de las escuelas, la limitación de las relaciones con iguales, la imposibilidad de realizar actividad física en el exterior y la pérdida de hábitos saludables de vida. La pandemia de COVID-19 se asocia con un incremento de factores de riesgo psicosociales, como son el aislamiento y la violencia intrafamiliar, la pobreza, el hacinamiento y el abuso de nuevas tecnologías. Se proponen medidas de prevención en el ámbito familiar, como la comunicación positiva, la promoción de hábitos saludables y el parenting. Se hace imprescindible reforzar la accesibilidad a la red de salud mental. Se deben diseñar estrategias de protección de la población infanto-juvenil en el contexto de la actual crisis sanitaria.
Conclusiones: Preservar los derechos de las niñas y los niños, su salud mental y su desarrollo integral, sin poner en riesgo la salud de la comunidad, es un reto al que deben enfrentarse las autoridades competentes.

https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v37n2a4
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