Identificando compulsiones en niños y adolescentes con trastorno del espectro autista
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Palabras clave

Trastorno obsesivo compulsive
TOC
Trastorno de Espectro Autista
TEA
sintomatología obsesivo-compulsiva

Cómo citar

Ortiz, A. E., Espelt, C., Rosa, M., Puig, O., Lázaro, L., & Calvo, R. (2019). Identificando compulsiones en niños y adolescentes con trastorno del espectro autista. Revista De Psiquiatría Infanto-Juvenil, 36(4), 24-40. https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v36n4a4

Resumen

El Trastorno de Espectro Autista (TEA) y el Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo (TOC) de inicio en la infancia son trastornos del neurodesarrollo con una prevalencia aproximada de entre el 1 y el 3%. Ambos trastornos tienen como característica similar la existencia de comportamientos repetitivos. Objetivos: describir la prevalencia de comportamientos repetitivos de los niños con TEA con la adaptación española del Child Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale por Autism Spectrum Disorder (CY-BOCS-ASD) y comparar el tipo de síntomas y la gravedad con los evaluados en un grupo de comparación con TOC. Metodología: se evaluó mediante el CY-BOCS-ASD una muestra de 39 sujetos con diagnóstico de TEA (confirmado por la Autism Disorder Interview-Revised -ADI-R-) y mediante el Child Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) 36 sujetos con diagnóstico de TOC siguiendo criterios DSM-IV. Para poder ser incluidos, todos los participantes debían tenir un cociente intelectual >70. Resultados: se obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas en los síntomas obsesivo-compulsivos actuales en el grupo de TOC (12,95+3,45) que en el grupo con TEA (8.23+5.65), (t = -3.632, p = .001). Las compulsiones de limpieza (p=.003), comprobación (p=.001), contaje (p=.001), orden y simetría (p=.004), y miscelánea (p=.001) fueron significativamente más prevalentes en el grupo de TOC. La frecuencia, malestar e interferencia fue mayor en pacientes con TOC que en los pacientes con TEA. Conclusiones: la CY-BOCS-ASD podría ser un instrumento útil para detectar síntomas compulsivos en niños y adolescentes con TEA. Disponer de un instrumento adaptado hará que dicha sintomatología, que requiere un abordaje específico, esté mejor evaluada y considerada en el tratamiento global de los pacientes con TEA.

https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v36n4a4
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