Función ejecutiva, lenguaje pragmático y perfiles psicopatológicos según la CBCL en niños con trastornos del neurodesarrollo y antecedentes familiares de esquizofrenia
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Palabras clave

trastornos del desarrollo neurológico
espectro de la esquizofrenia y otros trastornos psicóticos
endofenotipos
función ejecutiva
trastorno de la comunicación social

Cómo citar

Parrilla-Escobar, M., Cerezo Corredera, S., García Díez, B., de Andrés Lobo, C., de Cáceres Riol, C., Maniega Rubio, M., & Molina Rodríguez, V. (2020). Función ejecutiva, lenguaje pragmático y perfiles psicopatológicos según la CBCL en niños con trastornos del neurodesarrollo y antecedentes familiares de esquizofrenia. Revista De Psiquiatría Infanto-Juvenil, 37(1), 5-16. https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v37n1a2

Resumen

Introducción: La escala CBCL de Achenbach completada por padres evalúa un amplio rango de problemas conductuales y emocionales de inicio en la infancia. Sus subescalas “retraimiento-depresión” y principalmente “problemas de pensamiento” se han propuesto como medida de detección de riesgo de psicosis en adolescentes. Dentro de los posibles endofenotipos de la esquizofrenia se plantean la disfunción ejecutiva y la alteración en el lenguaje pragmático.
Objetivos: Identificar mediante ambas subescalas de la CBCL un subgrupo de niños y adolescentes con puntuaciones elevadas entre los pacientes que consultan en psiquiatría infantil por trastornos del neurodesarrollo y que tienen antecedentes familiares de esquizofrenia.
Material y métodos: Los padres completan la escala CBCL de Achenbach, CCC-Childrens Communication Checklist- (evaluación del lenguaje pragmático) y BRIEF-2 (evaluación conductual de la función ejecutiva).
Resultados: Se incluyeron 21 niños (16 niños: 5 niñas). Edad media 11,4 años. Los diagnósticos principales fueron TDAH (66,7%), trastorno de aprendizaje (9,5%) y TEA (9,5%). Las dos subescalas de la CBCL “retraimiento-depresión” y “problemas de pensamiento” discriminan dos grupos, uno con afectación (n=11) con puntuaciones por encima del Pc70 y otro sin afectación (n=10) con puntuaciones inferiores al Pc70. Los casos con afectación mostraron más dificultades en el lenguaje pragmático y función ejecutiva que los del grupo sin afectación.
Conclusiones: Realizar una evaluación dimensional más completa de la psicopatología, como la que ofrece la CBCL, en niños con trastornos del neurodesarrollo y antecedentes familiares de esquizofrenia puede ayudar a describir mejor las dificultades premórbidas e identificar casos susceptibles de seguimiento longitudinal e intervención precoz.

https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v37n1a2
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