Efectividad cognitiva del metilfenidato y de la atomoxetina en el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad: una revisión
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Palabras clave

Atomoxetina
Evaluación Neuropsicológica
Metilfenidato
Neuropsicología Infantil
Niños
Psiquiatría Infantil

Cómo citar

Rubio, B., Hernández, S., Herreros, O., Gastaminza, X., Cejas, R., & Castrillo, J. (2016). Efectividad cognitiva del metilfenidato y de la atomoxetina en el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad: una revisión. Revista De Psiquiatría Infanto-Juvenil, 33(3), 367-377. https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v33n3a1

Resumen

Introducción. El Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) se asocia a importantes déficits en diversos dominios cognitivos. Dicha afirmación cuenta con evidencias cognitivo-conductuales y neurofuncionales. El tratamiento farmacológico indicado en esta población tiene como objetivo fundamental suprimir o reducir la sintomatología nuclear del trastorno. Esta es la diana terapéutica tanto del Metilfenidato como de la Atomoxetina. Ambos actúan sobre la corteza prefrontal y sus conexiones con los ganglios basales, parte del sustrato anatómico de la atención, la actividad motora y el control inhibitorio. Considerando que estas regiones forman parte del conjunto de áreas y circuitos implicados en el procesamiento cognitivo complejo, se puede colegir que los acercamientos farmacológicos eficaces en la mejora de la sintomatología nuclear de este trastorno tendrán un efecto beneficioso sobre la ejecución cognitiva de estos pacientes, y, por extensión, sobre el rendimiento académico.

Objetivo. Actualizar los conocimientos existentes en neurociencia sobre la repercusión cognitiva de la administración de Metilfenidato y Atomoxetina en población con TDAH. Es un interés central del estudio profundizar en la relación entre sintomatología nuclear, sustrato anatomopatológico y rendimiento cognitivo, con especial referencia a las funciones ejecutivas. 

Método. Se ha realizado una exhaustiva revisión bibliográfica en la bases Pubmed, PsycINFO y Medline con las palabras clave: Metilfenidato, Atomoxetina, TDAH, Tratamiento, Evaluación neuropsicológica y Neuropsicología infantil. 

Conclusiones. El metilfenidato ha mostrado superioridad a la atomoxetina en el control de la sintomatología nuclear. Sin embargo, sobre el funcionamiento cognitivo, y en especial sobre la memoria de trabajo, ambos fármacos muestran efectos beneficiosos comparables.

https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v33n3a1
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